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P.V. Glob’s The Mound People: Danish Bronze-Age Man Preserved [Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, 19704] identifies this image (No.74) as “The goddess of Earth meets the god of heaven, Slänge in Bohulän”:
Barry Fell’s America B.C.: Ancient Settlers in the New World [Simon & Schuster, NY, 1978. Page 73] identifies this as a “cross” from a Basque tombstone in the French Pyrenees:
Stuart Piggott’s Ancient Europe from the beginnings of Agriculture to Classical Antiquity [Aldine Publishing Co., Chicago, 1965, Page 143] presents these images (in one panel) as Rock-carvings of chariots or carts, horses and wheels. Late second-early first millennium B.C. at Frännarp, Sweden:
Philip Van Doren Stern’s Prehistoric Europe from Stone Age Man to the Early Greeks [W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., NY, 1969, Page 229] shows this as a Norwegian rock carving of a large boat carrying a sun disk:
We have all seen the cross-within-a-circle image in many cave drawings and primitive artifacts.
(And it is seen as a wheel in many later primitive drawings and paintings.)
In its later incarnations, it is listed as a pagan symbol adopted by Christianity, and shows up in many venues of the British Isles (Ireland, particularly).
But the uppermost drawing here comes from a time period between 3000 B.C. and 600 B.C., well before an articulated Pagan era.
Why the cross in a circle then?
The boat drawing comes from the Neolithic era (about10200-8800 B.C.) and shows the symbol for the sun god, according to Stern – the larger circle on the boat-deck, but what about the two circles above the boat, in the sky?
There are not two suns in the Earthian sky, and the Moon and Sun would not show up congruent to one another as depicted, even in Velikovsky’s therories.
The Basque tombstone carving may be a Christian articulation of a Pagan symbol, but is it just that?
Carl Jung’s mandala symbols, derived from Oriental cultures, are said to be unconscious manifestations of the God archetype – the wholeness of existence as reflected in the ornate symbols revered by holy men and religions indigenous to the Asian sub-continent mostly.
But the earlier “mandalas” depicted, as shown above, primitve as they may be, indicate something else – something otherworldly: divine or ?
Can we extrapolate a reality that impinged upon early man, which caused them to note that reality?
And if so, what was the essence of that reality? Divine interpositions or Extraterrestrial intrusions?
Can we ever know? Does it matter?